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Extra info for 11.Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology
Power/ground distribution systems bring electrical energy from external sources (power supplies) to an individual circuit, which is necessary for the operation of packaged circuits. Conductors in this system are designed to carry larger currents than the conductors in the signal distribution system. There is a hierarchy of conductors distinguished by their technology and current levels ˚ to 1 A ˚ ), (2) package/ such as (1) chip level—thin film (10 mA ˚ ˚ ), (3) printed chip carrier level—thin or thick film (1 A to 10 A ˚ to 100 A ˚ ), (4) large syswire board level—printed wires (10 A ˚ ).
Then effects of material imperfections such as resistivity of conductors and dielectric losses in insulators will be discussed. A cross section of a representative interconnection structure is shown in Fig. 6. The interconnection capacitance matrix C is defined using the Maxwell electrostatic formula depicting the relations between the charges on the conductors qi and the conductor potentials Vj with respect to the reference: qi = ci1V1 + ci2V2 + · · · + cimVm i = 1, 2, . , m ;;; Solution of electrostatic field equations defined by the applied potentials yields the charges, and then the capacitance cij values are computed using the Maxwell formula.
247. , 1990. 2. D. E. , Measurement based large-signal diode modeling system for circuit and device design, IEEE Trans. Microw. , 41: 2211–2217, 1993. 3. S. Ramo, J. R. Whinnery, and T. , p. 817. New York: Wiley, 194. 4. C. S. Chang, Electrical design of signal lines for multilayer printed circuit boards. IBM J. Res. , 32 (5): 647–657, 1988. 5. com/ tmo/hpeeof. 6. T. , Darmstadt, January 1994. 7. , Pittsburgh, 1995. 8. W. J. R. Hoefer and P. So, The Electromagnetic Wave Simulator, New York: Wiley, 1991.