52.Reliability by John G. Webster (Editor)

By John G. Webster (Editor)

Show description

Read Online or Download 52.Reliability PDF

Similar encyclopedia books

Encyclopedia of Creativity (2nd Edition)

The 1st variation of the winning Encyclopedia of Creativity served to set up the learn of creativity is a box in itself. Now thoroughly up to date and revised in its moment edition, coverage encompasses the definition of creativity, the improvement and expression of creativity around the lifespan, the environmental stipulations that inspire or discourage creativity, creativity inside of particular disciplines like track, dance, movie, artwork, literature, and so forth.

Encyclopedia of Multicultural Education

Within the research of multicultural schooling, there are key names, locations, strategies, and felony activities which offer a starting place for the sphere. This reference comprises greater than four hundred entries from a vast variety of issues regarding multicultural schooling, which the authors outline as schooling aimed toward decreasing bias, making sure fairness, and selling realizing of the self and others.

Encyclopedia of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery

Otolaryngology Head and Neck surgical procedure is the scientific and surgical area of expertise addressing problems of the top and neck in either grownup and pediatric populations. The target of the encyclopedia is to function a unmarried and complete resource of the entire details that's crucial for college students and practitioners of the distinctiveness.

Additional resources for 52.Reliability

Sample text

The thermomigration data were generated in a study of Pb–In and Pb–Sn solders at IBM for different ٌT, varying from about 50,000ЊC/m to 320,000ЊC/m. This is an accelerated test compared to the field where the gradients are below 50,000ЊC/m. For high-lead Pb–Sn solders, a thermal gradient of 150,000ЊC/m is of concern at operating temperatures below 100ЊC. However, low-melting solders such as the Pb–Sn eutectic, the Bi–Sn eutectic, and high-tin Sn–Sb and Pb–In alloys are more vulnerable than high-lead Pb–Sn solders.

The change in free energy associated with corrosion characterizes the metallic state upon reaction and determines whether a reaction is thermodynamically feasible. It does not necessarily determine the corrosion rate. Potential-Driven Corrosion. Electrochemical corrosion occurs with the generation of electrolytic current through an electrolyte driven by an applied voltage. The electrolyte consists of adsorbed/condensed water films in which ionic species are dissolved. When no voltage is applied, the corrosion is galvanic, which operates under the driving force of local electrical potentials due to material heterogeneities.

Grain boundary width is assumed to be a couple of angstroms. The effective diffusivity Deff can be expressed as Deff = Dv + πδ d Dg (53) where ͳ ϭ Grain boundary width d ϭ Grain diameter Increasing d in Eq. (53) emphasizes bulk diffusivity and accordingly curtails electromigration. One must also consider the effect of the backflow compressive stress that develops in the conductor (more compressive downstream) and is responsible for an electromigration threshold. In fact, the backstress can completely annihilate the mass transport rate due to electromigration.

Download PDF sample

Rated 4.04 of 5 – based on 22 votes