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Additional resources for 52.Reliability
The thermomigration data were generated in a study of Pb–In and Pb–Sn solders at IBM for different ٌT, varying from about 50,000ЊC/m to 320,000ЊC/m. This is an accelerated test compared to the field where the gradients are below 50,000ЊC/m. For high-lead Pb–Sn solders, a thermal gradient of 150,000ЊC/m is of concern at operating temperatures below 100ЊC. However, low-melting solders such as the Pb–Sn eutectic, the Bi–Sn eutectic, and high-tin Sn–Sb and Pb–In alloys are more vulnerable than high-lead Pb–Sn solders.
The change in free energy associated with corrosion characterizes the metallic state upon reaction and determines whether a reaction is thermodynamically feasible. It does not necessarily determine the corrosion rate. Potential-Driven Corrosion. Electrochemical corrosion occurs with the generation of electrolytic current through an electrolyte driven by an applied voltage. The electrolyte consists of adsorbed/condensed water films in which ionic species are dissolved. When no voltage is applied, the corrosion is galvanic, which operates under the driving force of local electrical potentials due to material heterogeneities.
Grain boundary width is assumed to be a couple of angstroms. The effective diffusivity Deff can be expressed as Deff = Dv + πδ d Dg (53) where ͳ ϭ Grain boundary width d ϭ Grain diameter Increasing d in Eq. (53) emphasizes bulk diffusivity and accordingly curtails electromigration. One must also consider the effect of the backflow compressive stress that develops in the conductor (more compressive downstream) and is responsible for an electromigration threshold. In fact, the backstress can completely annihilate the mass transport rate due to electromigration.