A Functional Biology of Sea Anemones by J. Malcolm Shick

By J. Malcolm Shick

General Editor: Peter Calow, division of Zoology, college of Sheffield, England the most objective of this sequence could be to demonstrate and to give an explanation for the way in which organisms 'make a residing' in nature. on the center of this - their Junctional biology - is the best way organisms gather after which utilize assets in metabolism, flow, development, replica, etc. those methods will shape the basic framework of all of the books within the sequence. every one ebook will be aware of a selected taxon (species, relations, type or maybe phylum) and should assemble info at the shape, body structure, ecology and evolutionary biology of the gang. the purpose might be not just to explain how organisms paintings, but additionally to contemplate why they've got come to paintings in that method. by way of focusing on taxa that are renowned, it's was hoping that the sequence won't in basic terms illustrate the good fortune of choice, but in addition express the restrictions imposed upon it by way of the physiological, morphological and developmental obstacles of the teams. one other very important characteristic of the sequence might be its organismic orientation. each one publication will emphasize the significance of useful integration within the day by day lives and the evolution of organisms. this is often an important considering the fact that, notwithstanding it can be actual that organisms will be regarded as collections of gene­ decided qualities, they however have interaction with their surroundings as built-in wholes and it truly is during this context that specific characteristics were subjected to common choice and feature evolved.

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10, page 68). In conjunction with his schematic model, McFarlane (l984a) has provided a conceptual overview of the functioning of the actiniarian neuromuscular system, at least in Calliactis parasitica. Multipolar nerve cells are viewed as pattern-generating motor neurons that drive particular behaviours directly. Presumably these neurons contain Antho-RWamide I (see above). The behavioural programs may be modified by input from extero- and enteroceptors via the TCNN, SSI and SS2. Although the SSI and SS2 have some immediate effects, they are viewed more as switching the output of pacemakers from one phase of spontaneous activity to another.

It is of interest that the reversal of ciliary flow in the actinopharynx of Calliactis during feeding is controlled locally, a rare case in which ciliary beating is not coordinated by an electrical conduction system (Holley and Shelton, 1984). 3 NERVOUS SYSTEM Cnidarians are the simplest metazoans to possess a nervous system, viewed classically as a diffuse, non-directional nerve net (Hertwig and Hertwig, Nervous system 15 1879-80). Sea anemones have been favourite subjects in the investigation of this system, beginning with the work of Parker (1919) and greatly extended by the pioneering studies of its functional organization and conduction properties by Pantin (l935a, b).

Gosline, 1971; Brafield and Chapman, 1983). Neither the rigidity nor the elasticity of mesoglea is due to direct interconnections among collagen fibres or to their bending or stretching. Rather, the collagen chains form entanglements with polymeric components of the matrix (Gosline, 1971). The importance of this interaction, as well as the foregoing factors, can be appreciated by extending the discussion to a third case, Anthopleura xanthogrammica. 2, page 39). Nor does it exhibit the extreme postural changes so characteristic of Metridium or the somersaulting behaviour of Calliactis.

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