By Stephen Chapman MB BS MRCS MRCP FRCR, Richard Nakielny MA BM BCh FRCR
This publication offers a synoptic description of the sensible info of ways to hold out the typical systems in imaging on which an exam candidate may be anticipated to be customary. It doesn't try and conceal rarer suggestions past the scope of the examination or to teach the ensuing photos. each process is defined below a collection of normal headings (for instance: equipment, symptoms, apparatus, sufferer education, process, aftercare, problems, extra reading).
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Extra resources for A Guide to Radiological Procedures
Neurotoxicity is reduced with the use of LOCM, but they do show some chemotoxic effect unrelated to osmolality. 2. Intravenous contrast medium may provoke convulsions in patients with epilepsy or cerebral tumours. L O C M are less neurotoxic. 3. Convulsions may also occur secondary to the cerebral hypoxia caused by hypotension ± cardiac arrest. 22,23 Thyroid function 1. Thyrotoxicosis may occur in patients with non-toxic goitres, or be exacerbated in those with pre-existing thyrotoxic symptoms.
10 31 32 A GUIDE TO RADIOLOGICAL PROCEDURES 2. Increased vagal activity may result in depression of the sinoatrial and atrio-ventricular nodes, resulting in bradycardia or asystole. 3. The injection of a hypertonic contrast medium causes significant fluid and ion shifts. Immediately after injection there is a significant increase in serum osmolality. This causes an influx of water from the interstitial space into the vascular compartment, an increase in blood volume, an increase in cardiac output and a brief increase of systemic blood pressure.
1989) Acute renal dysfunction in high risk patients after angiography: Comparison of ' ionic and nonionic contrast media. Radiology 1 7 0 , 65-68. 1 7. , et al. (1 989) Contrast material induced renal failure in patients with diabetes mellitus, renal insufficiency or both: a prospective controlled study. N. Engl. J. Med. 3 2 0 , 143-149. 1 8. , et al. (1989) Contrast nephrotoxicity: a randomized control trial of nonionic and ionic radiographic contrast agent. N. Engl. J. Med. 3 2 0 , 149-153. 1 9.