By James A. Anderson
After electronic appears to be like at the place the sphere of computation begun and the place it'd be headed, and gives predictions a couple of collaborative destiny dating among human cognition and mechanical computation.
summary: After electronic seems to be at the place the sphere of computation started and the place it would be headed, and provides predictions a few collaborative destiny dating among human cognition and mechanical computation
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Extra resources for After digital : computation as done by brains and machines
Yet this is exactly what happened to flexible digital computers but not for inflexible analog computers. The construction of the first digital computer (the ENIAC) was sponsored by the US Army for the specific problem of solving the equations of motion of artillery shells to provide the data for firing tables. But computers rapidly became capable of far more than this due to the genius of the group that worked on the ENIAC project, some of the greatest minds in mathematics and physics of the 20th century.
Accurate naval gunnery presents a complex problem. V. V. 5: Description and Operation, 29 June, 1945, OP 1064, Prepared for the Department of the Navy, Bureau of Ordnance, by the Ford Instrument Company. NAVPERS 10798-A, NAVAL ORDNANCE AND GUNNERY, VOLUME 2, FIRE CONTROL. Wikipedia; public domain Computing Hardware: Analog 23 gun elevation angle, as well as time of flight to allow fuse setting. Worse, the ship itself rolled constantly back and forth. After about 1940 and the installation of automatic control, the guns could fire with precise aiming at any time, releasing accurate aiming from the difficulties involved in synchronizing firing with the rolling of the ship.
Complex slide rules were things of beauty, with engraved ivory scales attached to dense wood cores. They could go far beyond simple multiplication and division. They could provide approximate values for most trigonometric functions and compute a number of more esoteric functions like hyperbolic sines and cosines, fractional powers, logarithms of logarithms, and the like. Their major drawback was their limited accuracy. Values were represented as physical locations on a scale. Answers had to be read off the scale, using the cursor, and were good only to two or three decimal places.