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**Extra resources for Air-sea interaction: laws and mechanisms**

**Example text**

The large eddies of turbulence are much too large to interact with the diffusion sublayer, ruling out any influence from flume- or mixed-layer depth. , buoyancy flux). The viscous length scale = νw /u ∗w characterizes the size of the smallest eddies, with surface divergence of order u ∗2 w /νw . They are likely to play an important role in gas transfer. The Transfer Laws of the Air-Sea Interface 46 The interface gas flux Fi should then depend on the Force χw − Sχa , and at least on the three variables, diffusivity of the gas in water Dw , friction velocity u ∗w , and viscosity νw .

This leaves the buoyancy flux term, w b /T , work done by gravity, that is neither a flux-divergence nor an admissible contribution to internal entropy production because it can be negative. The total entropy change, however, is now not only ε/T . 72 to find the total. 71, and note that local changes in internal energy and specific volume occur because vertical eddy motions advect fluid parcels from a neighboring level: de/dt = cv w (dT /dz), and dv/dt = w (dv/dz). 6 Sensible and Latent Heat Transfer 43 yielding the rate of change of entropy: w ds = dt T +T cp dT +g .

The perfect gas law connects the latter to equilibrium vapor pressure, e∗ (θ) = Rv T χ ∗ (θ), with T absolute temperature, Rv gas constant of water vapor. 53) R where E is the Flux of interest, while the Force is the vapor concentration difference, between saturation at the undisturbed water temperature, and the dry air. 54) As in our previous examples, this again consists of an air-side and a water-side resistance. The thermodynamic properties Rv , L affect the water-side resistance only, but that resistance is typically again some 100 times smaller than the air side.