By Shouri Chatterjee, K.P. Pun, Nebojša Stanic, Yannis Tsividis, Peter Kinget
This ebook tackles demanding situations for the layout of analog built-in circuits that function from ultra-low strength provide voltages (down to 0.5V). insurance demonstrates the sign processing circuit and circuit biasing methods during the layout of operational transconductance amplifiers (OTAs). those amplifiers are then used to construct analog procedure capabilities together with non-stop time clear out and a pattern and carry amplifier.
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Extra resources for Analog Circuit Design Techniques at 0.5V (Analog Circuits and Signal Processing)
This well defined IR voltage drop is ratio-ed and transferred to the level shifters in Fig. 9 through M7 , R1A , R2A and M14 , R2A , R2B . A compensating capacitor, CCL , is used to stabilize the feedback loop. 25 V VL VL Vamp Vamp Fig. 13: Biasing the level-shifting current source. 3 Setting the OTA output DC common-mode voltage The bias voltage Vbn in Fig. 8(b) adjusts the biasing level of the nMOS devices compared to the pMOS devices and allows it to control the DC output common-mode voltage of the OTA.
19. Simulations of the open-loop phase response, adjusted for board parasitic capacitances, are shown compared to measurements, in Fig. 20. Measurements of the gain and phase response of the body-input OTA, in closed loop, are shown in Fig. 21. The measured output noise in the closed loop is shown in Fig. 22. The initial slope is a result of 1/f noise, the peaking in the noise response close to the gain-bandwidth frequency is because of the low phase margin. Measured results, in all cases, match well with simulations.
9 requires three biasing voltages: Vbn , the voltage to bias the bodies of device pairs M1 , M5 , M8 , M12 ; VL , to bias the level-shifting current source IL and maintain a process and temperature independent voltage drop across R1A , R1B ; and VNR , the voltage to bias the bodies of the cross coupled pair, M4 , in the first stage of the amplifier and set the DC gain. 1 Error amplifier In our bias loops replica circuits in combination with active feedback loops have been used extensively. These replica circuits require an error amplifier.