Arbeitsmarkt und Wohlfahrtsstaat: Staatliche oder by Thomas Mirbach

By Thomas Mirbach

1. challenge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1. 1 Arbeitslosigkeit in der Arbeitsgesellschaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1. 1. 1 Zur Besonderheit des Arbeits"marktes" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1. 1. 2 Machtungleichheit und Arbeitsmarktchancen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1. 2 Politische Verarbeitung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 1. 2. 1 Institutionelle Bedingungen der Arbeitsmarktpolitik . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 1. 2. 2 Entwicklung und Volumen der Arbeitslosigkeit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 1. 2. three Politische Problemverarbeitung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 1. 2. four Politik der Verarmung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . forty four 1. three Arbeitslosigkeit zwischen Desozialisierung und Individualisierung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . forty eight 2. Optionen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fifty five 2. 1 Wohlfahrtsstaatliche Politik in der Krise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fifty seven 2. 1. 1 Grenzen expansiver Politik? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . fifty seven 2. 1. 2 Probleme politischer Steuerung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sixty one 2. 1. three Koordination kollektiven Handelns: Markt, Staat und Gemeinschaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sixty five 2. 1. four Erwerbsgesellschaftliche Eingliederung oder Ausgliederung? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 2. 2 Solidarität rationaler Akteure? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . seventy three 2. three Mobilisierung der »Ressource Solidarität« . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eighty two 2. three. 1 Grundsicherung und Grundeinkommen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eighty two 2. three. 2 Dualwirtschaft als choice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ninety two three. Regionale Arbeitsmarktpolitik . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . one zero one Der gespaltene Arbeitsmarkt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 three. 1 three. 1. 1 enlargement der Dienstleistungsökonomie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 three. 1. 2 Arbeitslosigkeit, Ausgrenzung, Verarmung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 three. 2 Beschäftigungspolitik zwischen Moder- sierungszwang und Ausgliederungsdynamik . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 three. 2. 1 Programme und Akteure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 three. 2. 2 Neue Institutionen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 three. 2. three Kooperationen und Konflikte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 three. 2. four Programmvolumen und -schwerpunkte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . one hundred twenty three. three Förderung von Initiativen und Projekten des »informellen Sektors« . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Förderung im Rahmen des ABM-Programms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 three. three. 1 three. three. 1. 1 Ziele, Selbstverständnis und Entstehung der Initiativen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 three. three. 1. 2 Arbeitsplätze und Mitarbeiter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . one hundred thirty five three. three. 1. three Finanzierungsformen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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1992, S. 25 105 Lester C. Thurow: Die amerikanische Job-Maschine. Keine Volkswirtschaft schafft so viele neue Arbeitsplätze wie die der Vereinigten Staaten, in: DIE ZEIT Nr. 22 v. 5. 1988. 41 Tab. ) ALTE BUNDESIÄNDER NEUE BUNDESIÄNDER Kurz- ASN FuU Vorruhe SUMME Kurz- ABM FuU Vorruhe Alters- SUMME arbeit stand arbeit stand überg. 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 137 41 347 38 606 29 675 45 384 71 235 87 197 102 278 115 208 115 108 97 56 83 145 83 283 78 91 111 120 117 128 134 154 187 199 190 215 237 250 12 30 40 47 50 36 23 12 269 496 755 837 583 468 483 620 569 445 390 488 623 738 3 7 1616 183 169 370 388 425 180 365 295 10 938 189 2522 516 1994 Quelle: Autorengemeinschaft MittAB 4/92 FuU =einschl.

Diese Politik der Deregulierung wolle "anstelle der historisch errungenen 'Normalisierungen' und Verstetigungen in der Lohnarbeiterexistenz neue 'Individualisierungen', Flexibilisierungen setzen" und ziele damit eigentlich auf einen Umbau der industriellen Beziehungen111 . Vor dem 107 Vgl. H. Rudolpb (1987): Befristete Bescbäftigung. Ein Überblick, in: MittAB H. 3/87, S. 288 ff. Die wesentlicben Elemente des Gesetzes bezieben sicb auf die -> Erleicbterung der Zulassung befristeter Arbeitsverbältnisse bis zu 18 bzw.

101 Kühl 1991, S. 486 f. 102 S. 4. 103 Vgl. Douglas Webber (1987): Eine Wende in der deutschen Arbeitsmarktpolitik? Sozialh"berale und christlich·hberale Antworten auf die Beschäftigungskrise, in: Leviathan, SH 8, S. 74·86. 104 Elisabeth Niejahr, Sparlrurs ohne Linie, in: Die Zeit Nr. 27 v. 1992, S. 25 105 Lester C. Thurow: Die amerikanische Job-Maschine. Keine Volkswirtschaft schafft so viele neue Arbeitsplätze wie die der Vereinigten Staaten, in: DIE ZEIT Nr. 22 v. 5. 1988. 41 Tab. ) ALTE BUNDESIÄNDER NEUE BUNDESIÄNDER Kurz- ASN FuU Vorruhe SUMME Kurz- ABM FuU Vorruhe Alters- SUMME arbeit stand arbeit stand überg.

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