By Etienne Wenger
Booklet by way of Wenger, Etienne
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Additional info for Artificial Intelligence and Tutoring Systems. Computational and Cognitive Approaches to the Communication of Knowledge
For instance, if no country on a continent is known to produce sugar, then it can be inferred that the continent does not produce sugar, provided the available set of its countries is marked as closed. Less certain conclusions can be drawn by making assumptions. For instance, one can assume uniqueness for certain relations. In this way, if a country's language is Spanish, then it cannot be French, assuming that a country only has one language. One can also use a form of "inverse induction" that Carbonell and Collins call the lack-of-knowledge strategy.
For this purpose, numerical tags are attached to individual nodes and to their various attributes. These relevance tags also provide some guidance to SCHOLAR in selecting topics, for instance in formulating questions, when the system is given the initiative. Apart from these tags, however, tutorial strategies basically rely on random choices. 2. This excerpt also demonstrates the linguistic capabilities of the sys tem's interface. The language is a restricted subset of English, limited to simple sentences.
For the output, they range from the mere display of prestored pieces of text typical of CAI to the use of fairly complex generic frames. Within these limits, flexibility varies according to the granularity of the pieces of knowledge with which individual pieces of text are associated. As a counterweight to technical difficulties, the restricted conceptual context in which the verbal communication takes place can facilitate the design of natural-language interfaces for practical instructional systems.