Artificial Life: An Overview by Christopher G. Langton

By Christopher G. Langton

Synthetic lifestyles, a box that seeks to extend the position of synthesis within the learn of organic phenomena, has nice power, either for unlocking the secrets and techniques of existence and for elevating a number of annoying matters -- clinical and technical in addition to philosophical and moral. This publication brings jointly a chain of review articles that seemed within the first 3 problems with the groundbreaking magazine man made existence, in addition to a brand new advent by way of Christopher Langton, Editor-in-Chief of synthetic lifestyles, founding father of the self-discipline, and Director of the synthetic lifestyles application on the Santa Fe Institute.

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1 57-180). London: Allen and Unwin. 64. Mayr, E. (1976). Evolution and the diversity of life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 65. McNaughton, S. , Frank, D. , & Williams, K. J. (1989). Ecosystem-level patterns of primary productivity and herbiVOry in terrestrial habitats. Nature, 341, 142-144. 66. Milinski, M. (1987). Tit for Tat in sticklebacks and the evolution of cooperation. Nature, 325, 433-435. 67. Milinski, M. (1993). Cooperation wins and stays. Nature, 364, 1 2-13. 68. Miller, J.

1 952). Some experimental games (Report RM-789-l). Santa Monica, CA: The Rand Corporation. 3 1 . Fogel, D. B. (1993). Evolving behaviors in the iterated prisoner's dilemma. Evolutionary Computation, 1, 77-97. 32. , & Dickinson, J. (987). Using the genetic algorithm to generate Usp source code to solve the Prisoner's Dilemma. In J. ), Genetic algorithms and their applications (pp. 236-240). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 33. Gardner, M. , & Ashby, w. R. (970). Connectance of large dynamic (cybernetic) systems: critical values for stability.

Real ecological studies are severely limited in space and time. ) Given enough computer resources, artificial ecologies could be studied on a much wider range of scales. Artificial ecosystems can also be manipulated in many ways that are impossible for real communities. On the other hand, comp ared with simple mathematical models, which may sum­ marize the interaction between two species in terms of two real numbers as in the Lotka-Volterra approach,artificial ecologies could capture much more of the complex­ ity of interactions in real biological systems.

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