By Ronald S. Adler PhD MD, Carolyn M. Sofka MD, Rock G. Positano DPM MSc MPH
Prepared by way of top specialists in musculoskeletal ultrasound and a widely known podiatrist, this atlas is a whole consultant to using ultrasound within the prognosis of foot and ankle issues. greater than one hundred sixty illustrations reveal either common ultrasound anatomy and a number of universal (and a few unusual) pathologic states.
For every one sector of the foot and ankle, the atlas indicates general ultrasound anatomy and appearances of particular problems. The authors examine the application of ultrasound and MRI, fairly in detecting gentle tissue accidents and international our bodies. A bankruptcy on ultrasound-guided healing injections and diagnostic aspirations can also be included.
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Extra resources for Atlas of Foot and Ankle Sonography
The first metatarsal and proximal phalanx (MT and PP, respectively) are indicated. B: The second image (transducer slightly more medial) demonstrates the medial sesamoid (SES). The normal uniformly hypoechoic articular cartilage over the first metatarsal head can also be seen (long thin white arrow). C: Transverse ultrasound image of the sesamoids. Note the normal, curvilinear sesamoids demonstrating posterior acoustic shadowing. The flexor hallucis longus tendon can be seen in cross section (arrow).
Short axis (A) and extended field of view long axis (B) images of the posterior tibial tendon (PTT) in a patient with tendinosis and a small osteochondral body (arrow). On short axis, there is thickening of the tendon sheath with the small body posterior to the tendon. On extended field of view imaging, the ossific fragment lies above the medial malleolus. The osseus structures visualized include the medial malleolus, talus, and navicular bone. In B, the tendon can be traced to its navicular insertion (right).
These include the tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis longus, and extensor digitorum longus tendons (Fig. 4-10, see also Chapter 3). The dorsalis pedis artery and lesions of the deep peroneal nerve may also be investigated. Because sonography is a dynamic examination, the foot can be everted, inverted, dorsiflexed, and plantar-flexed during the examination, thus helping to extend the tendon in question and visualize it better, as well as to evoke possible tendon subluxation and episodic impingement (1) (Fig.