By Giulio Aniello Santoro
New 3-dimensional endoanal and endorectal ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance imaging options have given greater perception into the advanced anatomy of the pelvic ground and its pathologic amendment in benign anorectal illnesses. Obstetrical occasions resulting in fecal incontinence in ladies, the connection among fistulous tracks and the sphincter advanced, and mechanisms of obstructed defecation syndrome can now be competently evaluated, that's of primary significance for choice making. due to advancements within the analysis of those issues, new varieties of therapy were constructed with larger final result for patients.
This e-book is geared toward normal and colorectal surgeons, radiologists, gastroenterologists and gynecologists with a different curiosity during this box. it's also suitable to all people who desires to enhance their knowing of the elemental ideas of pelvic flooring issues.
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26. Sagittal image demonstrating the length of the perineal body (PB) that extends from the rectovaginal septum (RVS) to the external sphincter (EAS) Section III • State of the Art in Pelvic Floor Imaging 51 Fig. 27. The anococcygeal raphe (AR) is seen as a posteri- Fig. 28. Image at the superficial level demonstrating the or hypoechoic triangle subcutaneous external anal sphincter. The internal sphincter is absent at this level whereas both MRI methods enabled reliable measurement of all sphincter components.
Int J Colorectal Dis 6:2 14. Vaizey CJ, Kamm MA, Bartram CI (1997) Primary degeneration of the internal anal sphincter as a cause of passive faecal incontinence. Lancet 349:612–615 15. Williams AB, Bartram CI, Halligan S et al (2001) Multiplanar anal endosonography – normal anal canal anatomy. Colorectal Disease 3:169–174 16. Sultan AH, Kamm MA, Talbot IC et al (1994) Anal endosonography for identifying external sphincter defects confirmed histologically. Br J Surg 81:463–465 17. Frudinger A, Halligan S, Bartram CI et al (2002) Female anal sphincter: age-related differences in asymptomatic volunteers with high-frequency endoanal US.
Performed 3-D endorectal ultrasound in three patients with rectal cancer . More recently, a comprehensive study involving 100 patients demonstrated encouraging results of 3-D endorectal ultrasound in the evaluation of rectal cancer . Three-dimensional ultrasound facilitated the interpretation of ultrasound scans and improved the diagnostic confidence in approximately 60% of examinations. Comparable preliminary experience has also been reported for 3-D endoanal ultrasound imaging of perianal fistulas and sphincter defects.