By Jan Pechenik
This textbook is the main concise and readable invertebrates e-book when it comes to element and pedagogy (other texts don't supply boxed readings, a moment colour, finish of bankruptcy questions, or pronunciation guides). All phyla of invertebrates are lined (comprehensive) with an emphasis on unifying features of every staff.
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Extra resources for Biology of the Invertebrates
10, page 68). In conjunction with his schematic model, McFarlane (l984a) has provided a conceptual overview of the functioning of the actiniarian neuromuscular system, at least in Calliactis parasitica. Multipolar nerve cells are viewed as pattern-generating motor neurons that drive particular behaviours directly. Presumably these neurons contain Antho-RWamide I (see above). The behavioural programs may be modified by input from extero- and enteroceptors via the TCNN, SSI and SS2. Although the SSI and SS2 have some immediate effects, they are viewed more as switching the output of pacemakers from one phase of spontaneous activity to another.
It is of interest that the reversal of ciliary flow in the actinopharynx of Calliactis during feeding is controlled locally, a rare case in which ciliary beating is not coordinated by an electrical conduction system (Holley and Shelton, 1984). 3 NERVOUS SYSTEM Cnidarians are the simplest metazoans to possess a nervous system, viewed classically as a diffuse, non-directional nerve net (Hertwig and Hertwig, Nervous system 15 1879-80). Sea anemones have been favourite subjects in the investigation of this system, beginning with the work of Parker (1919) and greatly extended by the pioneering studies of its functional organization and conduction properties by Pantin (l935a, b).
Gosline, 1971; Brafield and Chapman, 1983). Neither the rigidity nor the elasticity of mesoglea is due to direct interconnections among collagen fibres or to their bending or stretching. Rather, the collagen chains form entanglements with polymeric components of the matrix (Gosline, 1971). The importance of this interaction, as well as the foregoing factors, can be appreciated by extending the discussion to a third case, Anthopleura xanthogrammica. 2, page 39). Nor does it exhibit the extreme postural changes so characteristic of Metridium or the somersaulting behaviour of Calliactis.