By Robert E. Weir
Within the usa, social category ranks with gender, race, and ethnicity in choosing the values, actions, political habit, and existence possibilities of contributors. such a lot students agree at the significance of sophistication, even if they generally disagree on what it's and the way it affects americans. This A-Z encyclopedia, the 1st to target classification within the usa, surveys the breadth of sophistication strata all through our heritage, for top institution scholars to most people. classification is illuminated in 525 essay entries on major humans, phrases, theories, courses, associations, eras, ethnic teams, locations, and masses more.This worthwhile set is an authoritative, attention-grabbing resource for in-demand info on key points of our tradition and society and is helping researchers to slim down a large subject. type is published from angles that regularly intersect: via background, with entries equivalent to Founding Fathers, the economic Revolution, Westward growth; via economics, with entries reminiscent of Dot.com Bubble, Robber Barons, Chicago college of Economics, Lottery, salary Slaves, fiscal equivalent chance Act, inventory industry, Inheritance Taxes, Wal-Mart, Welfare; via social symptoms corresponding to Conspicuous intake, the Hamptons, WASP, Homelessness, Social mountain climbing; via politics with entries comparable to Anarchism, Braceros, historical past beginning, Communist get together, Kennedy relatives; and during tradition via entries reminiscent of nation track, the good Gatsby, tv, and Studs Terkel. classification is usually approached from ethnic, sexual, non secular, academic, and nearby angles. particular beneficial properties contain an creation, timeline, steered interpreting in keeping with access, cross-references, reader's consultant to subject matters, and thorough index. pattern entries: Immigration, schooling, exertions move, Pink-Collar employees, AFL-CIO, moves, nice melancholy, Jacob Riis, Literature, the Rockefellers, Slavery, track, Academia, relations, Suburbia, McMansions, Taxation, Segregation, Racism, Ivy League, Robber Barons, Philanthropists, Socialites, faith, Welfare, the yankee Dream, Dot.com Millionaires, equivalent chance, Founding Fathers, salary Slaves, business Revolution, Capitalism, Economics, Appalachia, Horse Racing, Gender, Communist social gathering, state golf equipment, faith, American Indians, Conspicuous intake, Studs Terkel, movie, Class-Consciousness, paintings Ethic, Media, tv, Puritans, Homelessness, prestige Symbols, Assimilation/Melting Pot, paintings, Westward growth, Poverty, the good Gatsby, inventory marketplace, operating negative, Gated groups, the Hamptons, Social mountain climbing, Crime, Lottery, Elitism, WASP, American Dream, Noam Chomsky, Fortune journal
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Additional info for Class in America: An Encyclopedia Three Volumes
After her mother died when Addams was two, Addams developed a close relationship with her father, who encouraged her to pursue her education. After graduating from Rockford Female Seminary in 1881, Addams announced to the dismay of her family that she would pursue a medical degree. However, her father died, and Addams was bedridden for more than a year with spinal problems. In 1883 she traveled to Europe for two years and then returned home to what was a traditional life for a well-off, unmarried woman: living with and caring for her family.
Roosevelt, for example, spoke English with hints of an affected British accent, as does contemporary conservative commentator William F. Buckley Jr. For much of the twentieth century, upper-class accents and slavish devotion to precisely deﬁned grammar rules were commonplace in Ivy League colleges. The use of “poor” grammar or the use of certain regional dialects marked a person as socially and intellectually inferior. Southern and Appalachian accents came to connote a lack of sophistication, even stupidity, whereas an accent common in the greater New York metropolitan area was associated with working-class bluntness and crudity.
Immigrants who learn English often ﬁnd it difficult or impossible to speak it without an accent or to obliterate grammar and syntax patterns of their native languages. Attempts to address language-based discrimination often cause heated arguments within communities. Some Latinos, for instance, advocate replacing bilingual school programs with intensive English training, including speech therapy. African American leaders and educators arguing that a nonstandard form of English known as Ebonics should be recognized as a distinct language run afoul of black leaders who accuse them of further ghettoizing African American youth.