By Marco Rimanelli (eds.)
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Extra info for Comparative Democratization and Peaceful Change in Single-Party-Dominant Countries
However, the Moderates’ initial advantage as the indispensable guarantors of an orderly and stable transition to democracy was not sufficient to assure continuing dominance once the occupying Allies left and/or the reconstruction period was completed. Only Italy’s DC and Japan’s LDP succeeded in preserving their politico-electoral single-party dominance over nearly 50 years, while the similar initial dominance by the CDU in West Germany (1949–66), the UDC in Spain (1976–80), and the Nea Demokratia in Greece (1975–80) soon whittled away.
Conversely, the PSI split as the PSDI supported the government, while Pietro Nenni’s PSI remained alongside their PCI ally in their common revolutionary class struggle. Likewise the Leftist-dominated Italian Trade Union (CGIL) and working class were infiltrated by Catholic and moderates supported by the United States and AFL, splitting the Union into three parallel structures (CGIL, CISL, UIL) and weakening their common labor and political agendas. The DC was mightily aided by the Church’s massive anti-Communist crusade, demonstrations, and excommunication threats, while the United States openly threatened to terminate vital economic aid (Marshall Plan), while organizing a large write-in campaign by Italian-American immigrants to their relatives in Italy.
This strategy of political inclusion required formal inter-party agreements to engineer politico-constitutional and socio-economic coexistence through rigid power-sharing formulas (pactismo), or strict proportional allocation of positions and resources based on each party’s actual political strength (“proportionalism”). These anti-hegemonic solutions are 40 • Marco Rimanelli easier to achieve between two opposite blocs of similar strength to prevent either one from becoming dominant (like in Austria, or Latin America).