Cuvier's animal kingdom

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The female weevil lays about 200 eggs over a 10–12 day period in the bolls. She does this by drilling her way in with her long thin snout. 59 INDEX O A Antarctica, 22 antennae, 25, 34–35 anthouse plant, 27 ants, 11, 25 army ant, 26–27 bulldog ant, 43 communications, 36–37 drones, 49 harvester ant, 39 leafcutter ant, 36 life span, 49 nests, 25, 26–27 preparing for winter, 39 queens, 25, 49 stinging, 43 trapjaw ant, 45 workers, 25, 49 aphids, 16, 52, 53 mealy bugs, 59 arachnids, 18, 19 Arctic, 23 arthropods, 10, 18 O B backswimmers, 29 bed bugs, 57 bees, 11, 12–13 bumble bee, 12–13, 38 honey bee, 24–25, 33, 36, 54 other insects mimic, 46 beetles, 10–11, 13 aquatic, 28, 29, 33 bess beetle, 26 blister beetle, 43 bombardier beetle, 43 carrion beetle, 53 click beetle, 44 cockchafer, 15 Colorado beetle, 58 confused flour beetle, 59 darkling beetle, 22 devil’s coach horse, 45 dor beetle, 52 dung beetle, 35 earth-boring, 52 flea beetle, 45 great diving beetle, 28 ground beetle, 52 hermit beetle, 37 jewel beetle, 35 June beetle, 39 ladybug, 14, 22, 52 lily beetle, 16, 59 longhorn beetles, 35, 42, 46, 49 nests and burrows, 26 60 pollination by, 55 red flour beetle, 59 rhinoceros beetle, 13 scarab beetles, 10–11, 15, 23 senses, 33, 35 tiger beetle, 11 whirligig beetles, 29 wood-boring, 26, 49 see also weevils bivouacs, 26–27 blood, color of, 12 bloodsucking insects, 56–57 bodies, 12–13 brains, 12 “bran bugs,” 59 breathing, 13 underwater, 28 bugs, true, 10, 11, 14 assassin bug, 10, 46, 56 backswimmer, 29 bed bug, 57 fulgorid bug, 23 giant water bug, 29 kissing bug, 56 leaf-footed bug, 47 shield bug (stink bug), 11, 14, 43 burrows, 26, 38, 39, 52 butterflies, 10–11, 12, 15 brimstone butterfly, 38 color vision, 32 hibernation, 38, 48 life cycle, 16–17, 39, 48 migration, 39 monarch butterfly, 17, 39 morpho butterfly, 15 mourning cloak butterfly, 38 peacock butterfly, 48 pollination by, 55 Queen Alexandra’s birdwing butterfly, 10–11 scents produced by, 37 swallowtail butterfly, 47 taste sensors, 35 O C caddisflies, 29 camouflage, 46–47 carrion, 53 caterpillars breathing, 13 cup moth, 42 Eastern tent, 25 eyes, 32, 33 hairs (setae), 35, 42 hickory horned devil, 43 large copper, 37 spicebush swallowtail, 33 woolly bear, 23 yellow swallowtail, 47 centipedes, 19 cerci, 45 cheese skippers, 45 chitin, 12, 14 chrysalis, 16–17 cicadas, periodic, 48–49 cockchafers, 15 cockroaches, 45 cocoons, 39, 53 cold climate, 22–23, 38–39 communication, 36–37 cotton plant, 59 crickets cave cricket, 34 mole cricket, 15 song, 11, 15, 37 taste sensors, 35 crustaceans, 19 O D damselflies, 11, 28 desert insects darkling beetle, 22 desert locust, 44, 58 yucca moth, 54 devil’s coach horse, 45 diseases immune system, 49 spread by insects, 56, 57, 59 disguises, 46–47 dragonflies ancient, 13 eating habits, 53 eyes, 33 legs, 11 life span, 49 drones, 24, 49 dust mites, 19 Dutch elm disease, 59 O E, F earwigs, 17 ecosystem, 52 eggs, 16–17, 24 exoskeleton, 12, 14, 17, 18 eyes, 32–33, 42 fairy flies, 13 feelers, see antennae fig trees, 55 fireflies, 36 fleas, 45, 57 beach, 19 flies, 11, 33, 45 bot fly, 57 brine fly, 23 horse fly, 32–33 house fly, 11, 59 scorpion fly, 37 tsetse fly, 57 food dust mites’ diet, 19 insects’ diets, 13, 52, 53, 56–57 storing for winter, 39 froghoppers, 44 O G gills, 19, 28 gnats sand fly, 57 winter gnat, 38 grasshoppers, 11, 12, 37 African grasshopper, 43 O H habitat, 22–23, 28–29 hairs, 29, 33, 35, 42 head lice, 15, 57 hedgehogs, 57 helpful insects, 52–53 hibernation, 22, 38, 48 hornets, 39 O J jaws, 42, 45, 53 jumping insects, 44–45, 57 O L lacewings, 14, 35, 53 ladybugs, 14, 22, 52 larvae, 16–17, 23, 48 appetites, 53, 57, 59 aquatic, 28, 29 honey bee, 24 maggots, 53, 57 parasitic, 49 woodworm, 49 yucca moth, 54 legs, 11, 18, 19, 29 lice, see head lice life cycle, 16–17, 39 life span, 48–49 lobsters, 18, 19 locusts, 44 desert locust, 44, 58 O M maggots, 53, 57 malaria, 56 mating, 25, 37 mayflies, 28, 48 mealy bugs, 59 metamorphosis, 16, 17 midges Antarctic midge, 22 cocoa midge, 55 eaten by dragonflies, 53 in Yala Glacier, 23 migration, 38, 39 mites dust mites, 19 on fleas, 57 mosquitoes, 56 antennae, 35 eaten by dragonflies, 53 eggs and larvae, 29 poor eyesight, 33 moths, 13, 15, 33 atlas moth, 34 Bombyx mori moth, 53 clothes moth, 59 grape berry moth, 59 hawk moths, 11, 33 Indian Moon moth, 35 luna moth, 49 pupae, 39 winter moth, 38 yucca moth, 54 moulting, 12 O N, O nests, 26–27, 39 nymphs, 16, 17, 28, 46, 48 ocean striders, 29 orchid mantis, 47 O P parasites fleas, 45, 57 ticks, 19 wasps, 13, 17, 49, 53 parthenogenesis, 17 pedipalps, 18 pests, 58–59 controlled by insects, 52 pheromones, 36, 37 planthoppers, 23 plants attacked by pests, 58–59 insect-eating, 53 pollinated by insects, 54–55 poisonous insects, 42, 43 pollination, 54–55 praying mantis, 13, 32, 33 predators, 42, 52 pseudoscorpions, 18 pupae, 16–17, 39, 49 O Q, R queens, 16, 24, 25 life span, 49 in winter, 38, 39 rain forest insects, 23, 47 royal jelly, 24 O S sand flies, 57 scavengers, 53 scorpion flies, 37 CREDITS Dorling Kindersley would like to thank Jenny Finch for proof-reading and Steven Carton for editorial assistance.

John Brackenbury 39c; Jeremy Burgess 57tc; Nigel Cattlin 16c; Steve Gschmeissner 53crb; Richard R. Hansen 23bc; Louise Murray 23clb; Bjorn Rorslett 32br, 32crb; Sinclair Stammers 56tr, 57clb; Tom Murray: 55cra; Warren Photographic: 24crb, 45bc. Jacket images: Front: Igor Siwanowicz. Back: Corbis: Michael & Patricia Fogden fcl; Darrell Gulin fclb; Visuals Unlimited ftl; Getty Images: Altrendo Nature fcla; Science Photo Library: Stuart Wilson fbl.

Within a day, the mayflies die, their job done. Mayfly 48 a few weeks, but some species, such as the peacock butterfly, can live for about a year by hibernating through the winter. They hide in hollow trees, cracks, and crevices to emerge in the spring, when they mate and lay their eggs. Peacock butterfly Large, striking eyespots to scare away predators Most adults emerge in late spring and live for only a few weeks Woodworm A furniture beetle larva takes up to five years to pupate Q Why do some ants die young?

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