By Benjamin Reilly
A learn of how within which the democratizing states of Asia and the Pacific have controlled political switch, with specific specialize in cutting edge reforms to democratic associations reminiscent of electoral structures, political events and govt governments.
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Extra resources for Democracy and Diversity: Political Engineering in the Asia - Pacific (Oxford Studies in Democratization)
First elected president in 1965, Marcos assumed quasi-dictatorial powers in 1972 and indulged in an increasingly patrimonial, oligarchic, and ultimately kleptocratic form of authoritarian rule. In 1986, amidst burgeoning political repression, institutional decay, and mounting domestic and international pressure, Marcos sought to demonstrate the legitimacy of his regime by calling a snap election—of which, despite clear evidence to the contrary, he was initially declared the winner. The large-scale and well-documented fraud involved in this attempt to ‘steal’ the election outcome inspired massive popular protests, as well as a signiﬁcant revolt by some elements of the military.
43 The political consequences of such regionalism are not unlike those of ethnic diversity: a focus on sectoral interests rather than national ones, to the detriment of the country as a whole. 44 As will be discussed in some detail in Chapters 5–7, many Asian and Paciﬁc states have recently taken steps to counter the political impact of these kinds of social cleavages. In Indonesia, for example, the reinstatement of democracy was accompanied by new party registration laws which discourage narrow regionally based parties from competing in elections, while revised arrangements for presidential elections make it impossible for candidates to win without cross-regional support.
Introduction 19 Although the relationship between social cleavages and party formation is far from axiomatic, diverse societies which foster a multitude of ‘bonding’ parties representing distinct social cleavages are especially prone to the negative impacts of party multiplicity upon governance. 40 This instability of cabinets, party allegiances, and parliamentary majorities all contributes to uncertainty in terms of government tenure, leading to a lack of predictability in decision-making, an inability to make credible policy commitments, and incoherent public policy more generally.