Deposition, Retention, and Dosimetry of Inhaled Radioactive by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

By National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

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Additional info for Deposition, Retention, and Dosimetry of Inhaled Radioactive Substances: Recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements (N C R P Report)

Sample text

Some ventilatory indices are affected by age, while others are not. Residual volume as a fraction of TLC increases from 20 to 25 percent in males and females between ages 20 and 37 and to 40 percent by age 60. This is due almost entirely to changes in residual volume, since the TLC a t age 60 is 90 to 100 percent of that a t age 20. Vital capacity decreases with age, but the FRC increases by about 40 percent between the ages of 20 and 60. 32 1 3. PHYSIOLOGY OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT Aging is also associatedwith a decrease in the uniformity of p e h sion, resulting in an increase in alveolar dead space.

Thus, the velocity of the fluid blanket increases from the distal to proximal airways and this, together with fluid resorption, which may also occur along the airways, prevents fluid pooling (Asmundsson and Kilburn, 1970). The surfaces over which mucus flows are not uniform; there are openings for daughter bronchi and islands of nonciliated cells at bifurcations. The speed at which these obstacles are passed may be dependent upon the traction of the mucus layer, since no cilia are present. Thus, there may be areas of relatively slower flow all along the TB tree.

Love et al. (1971)found no difference in total deposition of 1 km particles in coal workers with simple pneumoconiosis compared to clinically normal individuals. In a later study, Love and Muir (1976) found no correlation between the presence of simple pneumoconiosis and total inhaled particle deposition, although total deposition did correlate with the degree of airway obstruction. , 1971; Thomson and Pavia, 1974). , 1970). Regional deposition may also be altered in disease. Lippmann et al. m particles in bronchitics.

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